What is DNA and Who Discovered DNA?
Often when we watch movies or news, we get to hear about DNA, but have you ever tried to know what is this DNA and who discovered it.
Although there are many people who listen to its name, but there are very few people who have information about DNA (knowledge of DNA).
This is the reason why this thought came to my mind today that why not tell all of you in simple words what is DNA and what is the meaning of DNA structure. So let’s start without delay and know What is DNA and what is its full form.
What is DNA?
DNA is a molecule that contains the genetic code of any human being and almost all living beings. DNA is also present in animals, plants, protists, archaea and bacteria. DNA is in every cell of every organism and it determines what proteins the cells will make.
Enzymes are made in the maximum amount of proteins made by the cell. This is the reason that children have many characteristics of parents like skin color, hair style and eye color.
The DNA of any human being is made up of a mixture of the DNA of his parents. There are also many people who try to know what is DNA. To answer which we have prepared this post, so you can get every information related to DNA by reading this post.
You will then also understand in which DNA is found, that is, which are the parts of the body from where DNA can be used as a sample.
DNA is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code. Like a recipe book, it contains the instructions to make all the proteins in our body. DNA consists of four basic building blocks or bases.
- adenine (A),
- cytosine (C),
- guanine (G)
- thymine (T).
The order or sequence of these bases forms the genome.
Whenever we watch films, DNA is used to investigate any kind of matter in it. Many things are detected through DNA. That is, it is an element that specializes in giving accurate answers while analyzing.
If even a drop of blood of a person is found, then the structure of DNA can be found out and its exact answer can be found, after all, who is this person, even his entire family can be found out.
Nowadays DNA test plays a very important role in investigating any type of case. Especially its use in forensic science has increased a lot. This also helps scientists a lot in conducting their experiments.
The DNA structure is different for every organism, but when there are organisms of one lineage, their DNA is found, from which it is known who are the parents of the organism.
Full Form of DNA –
RNA Full Form
By the way, today science has developed so much that even in the field of medicine, new inventions are being made one by one. But since the discovery of DNA, many things have become simpler. It helps a lot in understanding the basic principle of any body composition.
Even in school and college, children who study biology are well informed about DNA. Many people have a desire to know when and how this test is done and if they have reached this post to find this information, then they will understand about it to a great extent.
DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group, and a nitrogenous base.
The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases determines the instruction or genetic code of the DNA.
US According to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), human DNA consists of approximately 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of the bases are the same in all people.
Just as the order of letters in the alphabet can be used to form words, the order of the nitrogen bases in a DNA sequence makes up genes. Which tells the cells how to make proteins in the language of the cell.
Another type of nucleic acid, ribo nucleic acid, or RNA, translates genetic information from DNA into proteins.
The nickel tides spiral with each other as two long strands to form a structure called the double helix. If you think of this double helix structure like a ladder, then phosphate and sugar molecules will be on its side. While the base will be his rung.
The bases of one strand pair with the other stand. Adenine pairs with thymine while guanine pairs with cytosine.
DNA molecules are long, so long, in fact, that they cannot fit into cells without the right packaging. In order to fit inside cells, DNA is tightly coiled into structures we call chromosomes.
Each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are found inside the nucleus of the cell.
Who Discovered DNA
In 1950 AD, DNA was discovered by American biologist (James Watson) and English physicist (Francis Crick). It was discovered for the first time in 1869 AD by a German biochemist Frederich Miescher.
But for many years researchers did not realize the importance of this molecule at all. But it was only until 1953 that the structure of DNA was discovered by James Watson, Francis Crick, Morris Wilkins, and Roseland Franklin.
This structure was in the form of a double helix which he realized could carry a biological information.
Watson Crick and Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their discoveries about the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its importance for the transfer of information between organisms.
Franklin was not included in the award, although his work was separate from research.
By the way, there is a lot of difference between people as to who has discovered it. We have also tried to give you information about who in reality first gave information about it and then who discovered it mainly useful.
What is DNA sequencing?
DNA sequencing is a technique that allows researchers to determine the order of bases in a DNA sequence. The technology can be used to determine the order of bases in a gene, a chromosome, or an entire genome.
According to a report from the National Human Genome Research Institute, researchers completed the first complete sequence of the human genome in 2000.
Function of DNA
DNA stores the information needed to build and control the cell.
The transfer of information from mother to daughter, which we also know as gene transfer, happens through the process of DNA replication.
DNA duplication occurs when a cell makes a duplicate copy of its DNA and the cell divides, resulting in the correct distribution of one DNA copy in each cell.
DNA can also be chemically degraded and used in this form of nucleosides and nucleotides for the cell. Unlike other macromolecules, DNA does not play a structural role in cells.
Coding for Proteins
DNA codes for proteins which are complex molecules that do a great deal of work around our bodies. The information in DNA is initially read and then converted into a messenger molecule.
After this the information kept in this messenger application is translated into a language that the body can understand.
This language is one of the amino acids known as the building blocks of proteins. It is a special language that describes how amino acids should be used to produce a particular protein.
DNA replication is necessary for every function of the cell, tissue and body systems, from reproduction to maintenance and growth.
A DNA molecule essentially unzips in order to copy itself. There are four main bases of DNA. All parts of a nucleotide are special, in which there is also a sugar and a phosphate. Your body’s cells replicate so that good and blood cells can be made.
It is very important for our genetic code. It transfers genetic messages to all the cells of your body.
If you think about giving a reproductive function, consider that the fusion of an egg and a sperm to make your first cell provides your complete genetic code that your body will use for the rest of your life.
Before that half of your chromosomes inside the cell, which we call chromosomes that contain your DNA, came from your father and half came from your mother.
DNA clearly plays an important role in the human body and is one of the most important discoveries of the twentieth century. Knowledge of how our DNA works will help to know more.
In today’s rapidly developing era, every day new discoveries are bringing rapid changes in our lives. As time is passing by, the technology is developing more and more. It is used in both aspects, good and bad. But the truth is that the use of technology is discovered keeping in mind only for good works. But how it is used by the people depends on them. In today’s post, we know What is DNA and who discovered it.